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定语从句研究3

已有 130 次阅读2019-11-15 17:25 |个人分类:英语

The land is to be possessed by him on condition that he stipulates in the contracts he will make with his tenants that they will be obliged to, reside within the years on the concessions he has granted, failing which he will regain full title to the land.(他能够重获这片土地所有权的前提条件是:在他与承租人签订的合同中有规定,承租人必须在他的租借地上居住达一定的年限,若有违此约,他则有权收回全部土地。)

The discovery of surplus value suddenly threw light on the problem, in trying to solve which all previous investigations, of both bourgeois economists and social critics, had been groping in the dark.(剩余价值的发现突然使这个问题明朗化了。而先前,无论是资产阶级经济学家还是社会批评家所从事的一切研究都只是在黑暗中摸索,以试图解决这个问题。)

The 12th sign of the zodiac, represented by two fish, which some people believe affects the character and life of people born between February 20 and March 20.(星座中的第十二个,以双鱼为标志,有人认为这个星座会影响2月20日至3月20日之间出生的人的性格和生活。)

  我们看到,定语从句的基本结构是:which...affects the character...,其中which作主语。而some people believe是插入语。

Sometimes the very things that we think are holding us down are the things that are helping us fly. That is what discipline is all about.(有时候我们认为正在把我们往下拉的东西其实正是帮助我们向上飞翔的东西,那就是纪律的意义所在。)

  我们看到,这里定语从句本身的结构是that...are holding us down,但现在关系代词that后边紧跟了一个插入语we think,于是便有了带插入语的定语从句:that we think are holding us down。换句话说,定语从句的主语that和谓语部分are holding us down被we think这个插入语分隔开了。

被省去

  一、作主语的关系代词被省去

  前面我们讲过,关系代词的省略一般仅限于作宾语的关系代词,而作主语的关系代词是不能省去的。不过,在这种带插入语的定语从句中,作主语的关系代词也时常被省去。请比较:

  例 351

  a.Sometimes the very things that we think are holding us down are the things that are helping us fly.

  b.Sometimes the very things we think are holding us down are the things that are helping us fly.

  我们把a句中we think前面的关系代词that去掉,就变成了b句。这个关系代词that在定语从句中作主语,按理说是不能去掉的,但是由于其后边接了插入语we think,所以此时可以去掉。如果没有这种插入语,那么作主语的关系代词是不能省去的。比如该句中的第二个that引导的定语从句that are helping us fly,其中的that是不能省去的,不能说:

c.Sometimes the very things we think are holding us down are the things @ are helping us fly.*

(Why does everything turn crappy? Everything you wanna do,) everything you think’s gonna make you happy just turns to crap.(为什么所有事情最终都会变糟糕?那些你想做的事,你认为会令你开心的事,最后总会变糟糕。)

 Many students face problems when they have to study a subject that they think is difficult.很多学生如果必须学一门他们认为很难的课程时,就会遇到很多问题。




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